Monday, December 9, 2019

Comparison of Two Business Types for Woolworth- MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theComparison of Two Business Types for Woolworth. Answer: Introduction The report intends to present the comparison of two different types of the business based on the annual report. The two sectors have been chosen based on Retail Business and Manufacturing business headquartered in Australia. The choice of the retail company has been made with Woolworth Limited and the manufacturing sector has been identified with Boral Limited. The various comparison elements hsas been considered with the nature of the business, transaction records, preparation of financial reports, financial reports formats and extend of disclosure. The second section of the report has been seen to be related to the various types of comparison based on the various types of the disclosures which has been stated based on the accounting standards. Retail Business The various parameters of the retail business have been identified with Woolworths Limited. Nature of Business Woolworths Limited has been identified as a major Australian retail company and second largest in terms of the revenue after Wesfarmers Ltd. The main divisions of the company have been identified in terms of Supermarkets, Home Improvement products, liquor and discount stores (Woolworthsgroup.com.au. 2017). Transaction Records The main nature of the transactions has been seen to be based on the revenue from the sale of goods, operating profit, carrying amount of the goods and disposals of the goods. The main forms of the transactions are seen to be associated to the selling of the retail products. Preparation of Financial Reports The preparation of the financial report has been seen to be based on AASB 101 presentation of the financial statements. The various types of the other considerations of the financial report have been seen in terms of AASB 107 statement of cash flows. The financial instruments are further seen to be amended based on AASB 9 financial instruments. Woolworths Limited has been further identified to recognize the new accounting standards based on AASB 15 revenue from contracts with customers (Wow2016ar.qreports.com.au. 2017). Financial Report Format The financial reports are prepared based on discussions for significant accounting policies, critical accounting estimates and judgements, individually significant items from continuing operations, segment disclosure from the continuing operations. The fifth section of the report accounts for the revenue and expenses from continuing operations, financing costs from continuing operations, trade and other receivables, inventories, and other financial assets. The financial report has further included property, plant, equipment, intangible assets, impairment of non-financial assets. Extend of Disclosure The various types of the disclosures are seen to be based on the Groups reassessment from note 25 of AASB 9 financial instruments. Some of the other extents of the disclosures are further seen to be AASB 2015-2. Woolworth Limited is seen to comply with the disclosure based on the AASB 101. Some of the other disclosures are seen to comply with AASB 2016-2 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards Disclosure Initiative: Amendments to AASB 107 (Wow2016ar.qreports.com.au. 2017). Manufacturing Business The various parameters of the retail business have been identified with Boral Limited. Nature of Business Boral Limited has been seen to be completing 70 since its incorporation as Bitumen and Oil Refineries. The company has been seen to grow and evolve across several industries ranging from building products, construction materials, gas supply and oil refining. The main manufacturing operations of the company are seen to be carried out across Australia. Boral Limited has been observed to mainly comprise of the spin-off assets, comprising building and construction materials. The business of Boral has been also spread across United States and Asia (Boral.com.au. 2017). Transaction Records The main aspect of the reporting has been identified with construction materials cement, building products, and manufacturing operations in USA. The companys transaction records has been able to identify thee total revenue, operating profit and segmental assets. The external revenues of the company have been further identified with Australia, Asia and USA. The various types of the transactions of Boral Limited have been further identified in terms of the net profit on sale of assets, net foreign exchange gain and other income. Preparation of Financial Reports The main aspects of the preparation of the financial reports are seen to be based on AASB and Corporations Act 2001. It has been further recognized that the consolidation of the financial reports are seen to comply with the standards which are adopted by IFRS and IASB. Boral Limited has been further identified to make the new amendments based on AASB related to the changes in the accounting policies. The new accounting standards based on AASB 3 financial statements. Some other considerations of the financial statements have been further seen to be based on AASB 15 revenue from contracts with customers and AASB 16 leases (Annualreports.com. 2017). Financial Report Format The format financial report has been seen to be based on business is based on the several sections. The significant order of the various sections has been seen in terms of the business performance, operating assets, liabilities, capital and financial structure. The financial report sections have further included taxation, group structure, employee benefits and various types of other notes. The latter part of the report has included the disclosures associated to statutory statements. Extend of Disclosure The disclosure of the company has been made in sustainability report with carbon disclosure project. The company has clearly mentioned about lifecycle analysis and environmental product disclosures. Some of the other disclosure made by the company has been identified in terms of integrity and quality of Borals financial statements. The continuous disclosure made by the company has been further considered based on the disclosure laws and the ASX listing rule requirements as per the continuous disclosure policy adopted by the board. Comparison of Retail Business with Manufacturing Report Nature of Business Based on the several consideration made in the report the comparison of the nature of the business has been clearly seen to be based manufacturing and retail operations. The main difference in the nature of the business has been further seen to be associated to the continuous endeavour for focusing on increased production and in case of manufacturing business and in case of retail the nature of the business is focus on increasing the sales of company. Transaction Records The transaction recording has been seen to be the main difference among both the business types. In case of the retail business the transactions are mainly related to revenue from the sale of goods, operating profit, carrying amount of the goods and disposals of the goods. While in case of the manufacturing business the transactions are seen to be mainly recorded based on construction materials cement, building products, and manufacturing operations in USA (Annualreports.com. 2017). Preparation of Financial Reports The most notable difference in this aspect has been based on the consideration of only AASB standards in case of Woolworths Limited whereas Boral limited maintains their financial reports based on both AASB and Corporations Act 2001. It has been further recognized that the consolidation of the financial reports are seen to comply with the standards which are adopted by IFRS and IASB while this was not seen to be the case for Woolworths limited. Financial Report Format The main difference of the financial report has been based on including segment disclosure from the continuing operations. The some section of the report accounts for the revenue and expenses from continuing operations, financing costs from continuing operations, trade and other receivables, inventories, and other financial assets. In case of Boral inventories has been not been taken into account. The main financial components have been further seen to be based on the employee benefits and various types of other notes (Annualreports.com. 2017). Extend of Disclosure The disclosure of Woolworths Limited has been seen to be based on the Groups reassessment from note 25 of AASB 9 financial instruments. Some of the other extents of the disclosures are further seen to be AASB 2015-2. Woolworth Limited is seen to comply with the disclosure based on the AASB 101. On the other hand the disclosures of Boral Limited are seen to be based on the sustainability report with carbon disclosure project. The company has clearly mentioned about lifecycle analysis and environmental product disclosures. Some of the other disclosure made by the company has been identified in terms of integrity and quality of Borals financial statements (Annualreports.com. 2017). Conclusion The various types of the differences in the disclosure of the companies are seen to be based on the nature of business, financial transactions, reporting format and the disclosure made in the financial reports. It has been further assessed that the main difference are due to the differences in the following of the accounting standards. Hence it can be further seen that the different types of the considerations made in the report has been further made as per the segment disclosure from the continuing operations, while in case of the construction business the main considerations are seen to be based on the employee benefits and various types of other notes. Reference List Annualreports.com. (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/ASX_BLD_2016.pdf [Accessed 24 May 2017]. Boral.com.au. (2017).Boral History. [online] Available at: https://www.boral.com.au/history/ [Accessed 24 May 2017]. Woolworthsgroup.com.au. (2017).About Us - Woolworths Group. [online] Available at: https://www.woolworthsgroup.com.au/page/about-us/ [Accessed 24 May 2017]. Wow2016ar.qreports.com.au. (2017). [online] Available at: https://wow2016ar.qreports.com.au/xresources/pdf/wow16ar-financial-report.pdf [Accessed 24 May 2017].

Monday, December 2, 2019

INTERNET USERS TURN ADDICTS Essays - Behavioral Addiction

INTERNET USERS TURN ADDICTS On June 14, ABC news reported that an "internet-crazed" Cincinnati woman was arrested for neglecting her three young children. The woman reportedly spent 12 hours straight online, while her hungry kids were locked away in one room so she could be online without interruption. The three kids were placed in county custody while the mother was tossed in jail. The Internet is rapidly becoming an addictive source to a lot of its users. Users of the Internet include students, housewives, and business professionals. Some of these Internet users spend a minimum of thirty-eight hours per week on the "net"; hence, losing touch with reality and reeking havoc on their studies, family lives or careers. Individuals such as these are classified as "Internet Addicts." Based on level of addiction, there are three groups of Internet addicts: i) the "I'm-not-addicted users," ii) the "I-only-use-it-when-I-have-to- users" and iii) the "Internet junkies." The "I'm-not-addicted users" are the users who try to convince themselves that they are not addicted to the Internet. This group includes college students who don't go online during the day to prove to fellow students that they can do without getting online; only, to stay up all night in a chat room online. Or businesspeople who stay after office hours to supposedly get a late report done; only, to stay online until the security guy's ready to lock up the building. Or husbands who stay offline all day, only to get online for hours after their family members are asleep. These users are addicts but portray themselves otherwise in the presence of people. Next, are "the I-only-use-it-when-I-have-to-users." These users make convenient excuses to use the Internet. Mothers who claim they have to visit their child's school's website, to read the highlights of the last PTA meeting, while they could have waited for the minutes of the meeting in the mail. They end up staying online for hours. Or college students who insist on checking out the ratings of a movie online, using this as an excuse to stay online for hours; while they could have looked in the local newspaper. Or businesspeople who use checking for e- mail, as an excuse to get online; even though, the computer announces when there's new mail. These addicts make excuses to justify their use of the Internet. The third group of Internet users is the "Internet junkies." Unlike addicts in the previous two groups, these users neither sneak online nor make excuses to get online. They put their lives on hold to get online. The mother in the story at the beginning of the essay is an example of an Internet junky. Another example of an Internet junky is a woman in her 40's resigns from her job suddenly with no reason given. Unfortunately she leaves some work undone and a family member tries to find her for the employer. Finally the woman is found hunched over her computer, completely oblivious to her surroundings . These addicts are completely oblivious to their surroundings. Although the Internet is a very useful and economical source of information, it's fast becoming yet another addictive substance to some of its users. Internet addiction seems very contemporary because it involves a high-tech device. But psychiatrists and psychologists typically treat Internet addictions in much the same way they deal with other addictions. Just like drug, gambling, or alcohol, Internet addiction affects the addicts' life and the lives of those around them. Seyi Adegbore /

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Analysis of two published articles on research with children and young people The WritePass Journal

Analysis of two published articles on research with children and young people Summary of Main Argument Analysis of two published articles on research with children and young people ) focuses on the use of visual and play-based activities as a method of social science research with children and young people. Three case studies are presented within the article with each case study describing a different visual method. Lego Duplo toys were used by children to create a model of their own homes and to enact the roles of the different people within their home. An activity entitled ‘Rainbows and Clouds’ was used to allow children to express both the positive and negative feelings regarding their parents’ unemployment, and finally, mood-boards were used to allow children and young people to explore feelings about various experiences. Each visual method of research is claimed to be a useful and valid way of letting young people and children express their feelings and experiences. The relevance of our visual sense is discussed in the introduction and its importance in expressing ourselves is explored, for example through the medium of photography. A r ecent move away from seeing young people and children as subjects to be observed and interpreted at a distance, toward seeing them as subjects to work with and alongside is also discussed, a move that has allowed a more valid reflection of their real life experiences. The article concludes that visual research methods are able to improve the research process with young people and children and increase the ecological validity of such research as the young participants are more able to express their thoughts and feelings. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Research Methods Discussed The article by Pimlott-Wilson (2012) examines the usefulness of three different visual research methods all of which have both strengths and weaknesses. A key strength of all three of the visual research methods discussed in the article is their ability to give children and young people, who may struggle with verbal expression an opportunity to fully express themselves in a less pressurised way. Pimlott-Wilson (2012) also argues that the methods can overcome difficulties that children may have expressing themselves if their drawing skills are poor. It has been argued that un-reliable and poor data provided by children and young people is often the fault of the adult researchers who tend to treat children in an ‘adult-ist’ way, perhaps through intimidation or subjectivity in the interpretation of results (Alderson, 1995). The use of more child-friendly methods in the research described by Pimlott-Wilson (2012) allowed children to express themselves in a more familiar and comfortable way thus limiting the power gap between child and researcher and fostering a more collaborative relationship, a key strength in research with children and young people that has been advocated by Robinson and Gillies (2012). This more child-friendly approach also reduced the need for subjectivity in interpreting results. A child or young person who feels more comfortable and able to express their true thoughts, feelings and experiences is likely to produce a clearer and easier to interpret product because they are able to be more open and honest. In turn, this gives the study good content validity.   However, it should be noted that some children expressed worry about parents or carers seeing what had been written during the ‘Rainbows and Clouds’ activity. Therefore, in order to maximise these research methods’ abilities to make children and young people feel at ease, issues of confidentiality must be fully addressed. Despite the noted strengths of the research methods discussed, there are also a number of weaknesses that should be highlights. A key weakness of the research method using Lego Duplo toys is unknowingly identified by the author herself early on in the text when it is noted that the toy is an important cultural experience for Western children. This limits both the generalisability of any findings made through the use of Lego Duplo toys as well as the usefulness of the method with non-Western cultures. Furthermore, as is pointed out by the author, the use of Lego Duplo toys as a visual research method creates a blurry line between where a real life representation ends and a child’s imagination begins. Secondly, the research methods used appear quite time consuming and engaging young children especially can be challenging over a long period of time. Children or young people can become easily bored and may begin to fabricate answers. Furthermore, each visual research method discussed would require a reasonably detailed explanation of both the activity and what is required of the child. This could become extremely limiting when trying to use these types of research methods with children with communication disorders. This refutes that author’s argument that the methods are ideal for using with children who struggle with verbal communication. Task B Summary of Main Argument This article is a book review of â€Å"Children caring for parents with HIV and AIDS: Global issues and policy responses† by Evans and Becker (2009). The book discusses a comparative research project carried out in both the UK and Tanzania, which explored the global issues and policies surrounding the role of young people caring for parents diagnosed with HIV and AIDS. Robson (2009) critically evaluates the book and identifies the key strengths and limitations of both the study that was carried out and the subsequent book. The result is a short summary and review of the book that evaluates each chapter in its own right. The key strengths identified include a thorough and concise literature review and the clear lay-out of the book. The key limitations of the book identified by Robson (2009) include a somewhat misleading book title. Although the title suggests that the study investigated children caring for parents, in reality only children caring for mothers or female guardians were included. Overall, the main argument of the article is in favour of the study reported by Evans and Becker (2009). Robson (2009) concludes that the book provides â€Å"the most substantial research on children caring for adults with HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa to date,† and could be used to make valuable contributions to policies regarding young carers. Ethical Considerations There are a number of ethical considerations discussed by Robson (2009) regarding the study by Evans and Becker (2009). Firstly, Robson (2009) highlights Evans and Becker’s (2009) admittance that their sample â€Å"cannot be seen as representative of young people with caring responsibilities in families affected by HIV and AIDS across Tanzania and the UK.† Knowingly carrying out research with children that will be limited in its generalisability and contribution to improving the lives of such children could be argued to be unethical. Robson (2009) also notes that Evans and Becker (2009) fail to include a key text by Lather and Smithies (1997). Combined with a lack of generalisability, this has potential ethical implications as failure to review all the relevant literature for their topic may have led the authors to make un-sound policy recommendations. It is unclear from the Robson (2009) review whether the authors did so but it will have been essential for the authors to make it clear in any recommendations can be applied to children providing care for female relatives only. Beazley et al. (2009) advocate a rights-based approach when carrying out research with children. Such an approach views children as subjects and not just objects of research. The authors further argue that academic theories can often be ‘disconnected’ from the real life experiences of children because they are generated and developed through the eyes of adults. Although Robson (2009) does not provide details about the methods used by Evans and Becker (2009) it appears as though the information gathered may have been through observation or inference. For example, Robson (2009) notes that chapters six and seven of the book detail how the children’s carer roles impact on themselves, their families, their schools and communities, a topic that would be challenging for many children to grasp and to answer. Therefore, it seems likely that Evans and Becker (2009) did not respect children’s right to be properly researched and as a result, may not have gained a true reflection of the lives of these children or the support that they really require. Another ethical consideration discussed by Robson (2009) is the way in which participants were recruited for the study. All participants were recruited through non-government and statutory support organisations meaning that they were all receiving some kind of support. It could be argued that this was an unethical method of recruitment as through neglecting to find and research children and families without support, the authors were also neglecting to increase the awareness of support for children in such situations. It is also unclear as to the how consent was gained and whether it was made clear to the children involved that they were free to stop participation at any time, an important research element when working with children referred to as informed dissent (Ennew and Plateau, 2004). Despite these ethical considerations, overall Robson (2009) paints a picture of an ethically sound study commenting that the study by Evans and Becker (2009) used an â€Å"ethically sensitive part icipatory methodology.† However, there are no details given as to why Robson (2009) makes this statement. References Alderson, P. (1995) Listening to Children: Children, Ethics and Social Research. Ilford: Barnado’s. Beazley, H., Bessell, S., Ennew, J. and Waterson, R. (2009) The right to be properly researched: research with children in a messy, real world. Children’s Geographies, 7(4), pp. 365-378. Ennew, J. and Plateau, D.P. (2004) How to research the physical and emotional punishment of children. Bangkok: International Save the Children Southeast, East Asia and Pacific Region Alliance. Evan, R. and Becker, S. (2009) Children caring for parents with HIV and AIDS: global issues and policy responses. Bristol: Policy Press. Lather, P. and Smithies, C. (1997) Troubling the angels: women living with HIV/AIDS. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Robson, E. (2009) Children caring for parents with HIV and AIDS: global issues and policy responses. Children’s Geographies, 7(4), pp. 487-488. Robinson, Y. and Gillies, V. (2012) Introduction: developing creative methods with children and young people. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15(2), pp. 87-89.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Definition and Examples of the Interrobang

Definition and Examples of the Interrobang The interrobang (in-TER-eh-bang) is a  nonstandard mark of punctuation in the form of a question mark superimposed on an exclamation point (sometimes appearing as ?!), used to end a rhetorical question or a simultaneous question and exclamation. A blend  of the words  interrogation  and  bang, interrobang is an old printer’s term for the exclamation mark. Though editor Martin K. Speckter is generally credited with the marks invention in 1962 (its name was suggested by a reader of Speckters magazine,  Type Talks), a version of the interrobang had already been used for decades in the speech balloons of comic strips. Mac McGrew has characterized the interrobang as the first new punctuation mark to have been introduced in three hundred years and the only one invented by an American (American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century, 1993). However, the mark is rarely used, and it hardly ever appears in formal writing. Examples and Observations James Harbeck Whats up with English punctuations?! Usually we have a glut, but for certain situations, we dont have a mark?! Say what?! –Where Is the Interrobang?!  Songs of Love and Grammar. Lulu, 2012 Martin K. Speckter To this day, we don’t know exactly what Columbus had in mind when he shouted ‘Land, ho.’ Most historians insist that he cried, ‘Land, ho!’ but there are others who claim it was really ‘Land ho?’ Chances are the intrepid Discoverer was both excited and doubtful, but neither at that time did we, nor even yet, do we, have a point which clearly combines and melds interrogation with exclamation. –Making a New Point, or How About That . . .. Type Talks, March-April, 1962 New York Times From 1956 to 1969, Mr. Speckter was president of Martin K. Speckter Associates Inc... In 1962, Mr. Speckter developed the interrobang, since recognized by several dictionaries and some type and typewriter companies. The mark is said to be the typographical equivalent of a grimace or a shrug of the shoulders. It applied solely to the rhetorical, Mr. Speckter said, when a writer wished to convey incredulity. For example, the interrobang would be used in an expression like this: You call that a hat?! – Martin Spekter obituary: Martin K. Speckter, 73, Creator of Interrobang. The New York Times, February 16, 1988 Keith Houston [F]everish interest in Martin Speckters invention followed the release of Remingtons interrobang key [on typewriters in the 1960s]... Unfortunately, the interrobangs status as a cause cà ©là ¨bre during the late 1960s and early 1970s proved ephemeral, and its popularity reached a plateau even as Remington Rands interrobang key let the average typist make use of it. A creation of the advertising world- and considered by some an unnecessary one at that- the interrobang faced resistance in literary and academic spheres and was beset by more prosaic technical difficulties at almost every turn... [A] combination of factorsthe six-year delay in getting the new character from composition to printing; the sheer inertia of punctuation practice; doubt as to the grammatical need for a new symbol- sent the interrobang to an early grave. By the early 1970s it had largely fallen out of use, and the chance for its widespread acceptance seemed to have been missed. Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols, and Other Typographical Marks. Norton, 2013 Liz Stinson In  many ways one could say that the interrobang has now been superseded by the emoticon, which makes similar use of glyph combinations in order to add emphasis and feeling to the sentence that precedes it. –The Secret History of the Hashtag, Slash, and Interrobang. Wired, October 21, 2015 William Zinnser According to its sponsors, the [interrobang] is getting support from typographers who recommend it for its ability to express the incredibility of modern life. Well, I certainly agree that modern life is incredible. Most of us, in fact, now go through our days in a state of Really?!- if not Are you kidding?! Still, I seriously doubt if we are going to solve the problem by creating new punctuation marks. That only clutters up a language more... Besides, let in one mans interrobang and you let in every nut who is trying to express the incredibility of modern life. –For Clear Expression: Try Words. Life, November 15, 1968

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Government intervention in the market for various agricultural Essay

Government intervention in the market for various agricultural products - Essay Example This situation may especially prevail when foreign agricultural products are allowed indiscriminately into the market (Dommen, & Mabbs-Zeno,  1989, 98). The government is therefore sometimes forced to maintain a tough balancing act between a free market economy and intervention when the need arises in this particular market to prevent the adverse extremities from occurring (Rothbard, 2008). This paper discusses the circumstances under which such a government intervention can take place with particular reference to the case of the United States of America. Factors Resulting in Government Intervention in the United States The United States government has for long been involved in attempts to enhance profitability in farms through deliberate policies and programs. This is usually done through measures such as regulation, protection of trade, promotion of products and price control and support of income. The government controls the types of food produced, the volume in which they are p roduced, the volume exported and those imported. ... Interestingly, this money came from taxes imposed on the same agricultural sector. The jury is still out on whether the attempt to create jobs is really succeeding considering that the same money taken from farmers in the form of taxes could be used by the same farmers to create jobs. This argument has however not deterred the government from bulldozing on with this policy (Robbins, 1976,  144). The problem with taxation is that it pushes prices of commodities up thus eroding the buying power of the consumer. However, this has to be counter-balanced with the reality that poor quality products that do not adhere to health standards also push up medical bills for the same consumers who complain if prices of commodities go up. The government prefers higher health standards rather than very low food prices (Dommen, & Mabbs-Zeno,  1989, 98). The dynamics of government taxation and the prices of commodities are best expressed in figure 1 below. Figure 1 Change of Equilibrium Due to Tax s tax s 1 P r i p tax c p 1 e (p) D q tax q 1 Quantity (q) In the figure above, the old price [p1] increases due to tax [p tax] while to old quantity [q1] decreases to a smaller amount [q tax]. As a result of these changes, the old supply curve [s1] shifts vertically to the new one [s tax]. Note that the difference between p1 and p tax. This difference is equal to the amount of tax levied which the sellers pass on directly to the consumers (Plott, 1982, 1485). The consumers are therefore left with the option of buying the old quantity at a higher price or a smaller quantity at the old price. The net effect of this taxation is that less of the particular product is sold than before since in many cases the buyers will opt

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Concept Software Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 1

Concept Software Systems - Essay Example According to the paper the hardcopy of the email was left in a common work area and by chance was read by David. The dilemma is what David should do, because of his knowledge of the matter. Although several unethical situations develop, it is the issue of the confidential email’s contents that is the main problem that calls for a resolution. David is a principled young man raised with strong moral values and a propensity to stand for what is right. However, adverse action on his part may earn him the ire of his superiors and peers and may cost him his job. Furthermore, the manner by which he came upon the email brings to question the validity of his future action on the matter. This report will present the case analysis and discussion of Concept Software Solutions (CSS), which deals with the application of ethical principles and practices in the context of information technology and electronic communication. Based on the theory of utilitarianism which commands the greatest good for the greatest number, workers should be ensured proper working hours, otherwise this situation is reduced to exploitation for the sake of gain of the employer. However, if in a particular jurisdiction a limited number of hours per day is assured the worker by law, then the theory that applies is the Social Contract theory, because the terms of the social contract (which is the law) is enforceable by the government. Â  Angela's chatting online is unethical. Based on the Kantian theory, it is immaterial what Angela wants to do; what should govern is what she ought to do. Implicit in her employment contract is Angela's duty to work for the good of her employer within working time a nd place. Viewed this way, she is also bound by the Social contract theory, because her employment contract has the force of law. She may not use the time and resources according to her own whims.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Linguistics writing Essay Example for Free

Linguistics writing Essay Literacy is the ability to read and write[1]. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. Visual literacy includes in addition the ability to understand visual forms of communication such as body language,[2] pictures, maps, and video. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems. These abilities vary in different social and cultural contexts according to need, demand and education. The primary sense of literacy still represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from a critical interpretation of the written or printed text. Key to all literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to approach printed material with critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative thought. [3] The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. [4]Literacy is the ability to read and write[1]. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. Visual literacy includes in addition the ability to understand visual forms of communication such as body language,[2] pictures, maps, and video. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems. These abilities vary in different social and cultural contexts according to need, demand and education. The primary sense of literacy still represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from a critical interpretation of the written or printed text. Key to all literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to approach printed material with critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative thought. [3] The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. [4] Literacy is the ability to read and write[1]. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. Visual literacy includes in addition the ability to understand visual forms of communication such as body language,[2] pictures, maps, and video. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems. These abilities vary in different social and cultural contexts according to need, demand and education. The primary sense of literacy still represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from a critical interpretation of the written or printed text. Key to all literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to approach printed material with critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative thought. [3] The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. [4] Literacy is the ability to read and write[1]. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. Visual literacy includes in addition the ability to understand visual forms of communication such as body language,[2] pictures, maps, and video. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems. These abilities vary in different social and cultural contexts according to need, demand and education. The primary sense of literacy still represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from a critical interpretation of the written or printed text. Key to all literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to approach printed material with critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative thought. [3] The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. [4]